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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE




ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

AI (ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE) is being developed faster than ever.
How far it got by  now !
  
........ WHAT IS AI  ?
According to Anjali UJ, the term AI: „was coined by John Mccarthy, an American computer scientist in 1956. Artificial Intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence but processed by machines, mainly computer systems. The processes mainly include learning, reasoning and self-correction. When the term „artificial intelligence" comes to our minds, we tend to immediately think about robots and cyborgs which are self-aware. That is the impression and the idea that is delivered to us through Hollywood films like Terminator or The Matrix.However, the truth is a little bit different, because the term AI applies to computer systems, and not neccessarily to robots. Although now a days there are instances of humanoid robots (droids),robots are predominantly not intelligent.
The field of AI is very broad, as it becomes more and more applicable in our everyday lives as time goes on. The idea of AI was born in the decades of 1940s and 1950s (when the first computers were developed as well), when a number of scientists investigated neuroscience and cybernetics. However, it was not until the mid-1980s when researchers conducted experiments with the goal of creating programs which would simulate the problem-solving technique which humans possess. Today, we are literally surrounded by numerous instances of AI, which we shall discuss in the following articles


.. ...... TYPES OF AI
 According to A. Notis: „Futurists, computer scientists, and other artificial intelligence experts break down A.I. into three broad categories: artificial narrow intelligence (A.N.I.), artificial general intelligence (A.G.I), and artificial super intelligence (A.S.I.)."These hesethree categories can be broken down as follows: 
A.N.I. – this type of AI refers to machines and computer systems which are as competent as humans at one specific task. Also, this type of AI is often even more competent as a human in a specific task. For example, the world champion in chess – Garry Kasparov, was checkmated in 1997 by IBM's program called Deep Blue. The reason for this is the ability of this program to always find and play the best move possible in chess, and that is why humans can not win at this game against a computer, as the best result which can be achieved is a draw.
A.G.I. – is supposed to be as competent as a human being in every aspect. (like an artificial copy of human mind) A.S.I. is the idea of an AI that is more intelligent and more competent than a human being. 
Although the development of AI shows significant advances in recent years, there are still no forms of AI which would match the second and third type (A.G.I. and A.S.I.).
 A.N I. is present all around us, while the other two types (at least for now) only exist as ideas. Scientists have created cyborgs which are aesthetically close to humans, and they can even behave and move like us, as well as engage in problem-solving (like Sophia – the robot), but cyborgs and computer systems are still not self-aware. They have no consciousness, as well as no emotions, which is a trait that only living beings (humans) possess.


7 EVERYDAY APPLICATIONS OF AI
There are numerous applications of AI which have become so present in our everyday lives that we don't even notice them anymore. All of them are instances of A.N.I. Best Life shares 20 instances of AI applications  which we have summed up into the following 7 everyday applications of AI:

1. Google Translate – This online translation tool is helpful for finding a simple translation of one or two words. However, when writing down a sentence in (say) Spanish, the English translation will probably be very senseless and funny. That is because this translator uses an algorithm which can translate the given sentence into the target language. However, more complex translations are often semantically and syntactically incorrect. Experts are working on solving this problem.

2. Google search bar – A form of AI is also used in the Google search bar where, as you are typing in letters, various solutions and search suggestions appear underneath the text which you typed in. These suggestions may or may not help and speed up your search, but the idea behind it is that it should help you. The search bar also remembers your previous searches (for the same reason).

3. Virtual assistants – These virtual assistants are for example Apple's Siri or Amazon's Alexa. They are a form of AI which you can interact with, as they offer you help with a wide spectre of problems and tasks. They respond to you with a human voice, although they are a computer system.

4. Social network recommendations – Another form of AI are social network recommendations. Here, we are referring to the recommendations for potential friends in the „people you may know" sections. Social media platforms like Facebook or Twitter use this kind of AI to, supposedly, help you connect with other users. This algorithm finds people with whom you have a number of friends in common, or even some interests or pages in common. Then, they appear in the „people you may know" section.

5. Youtube's „Watch this next" – Another well-known and everyday form of AI which we encounter is Youtube's „Watch this next" section. Youtube collects data about the content which you (as their consumer) are using, i.e. about which videos you watch. Then, they find similar videos and suggest them to you. This also happens with the „Recommended for you" section.

6. Driverless vehicles – Another form of AI which is more and more present are driverless vehicles: cars, airplanes, trains, etc. These vehicles use decision-making AI which navigates and drives them. These AI drivers are maybe not that present in our lives just yet, but they are definitely arriving.

7. Online and video games – Virtually each online and video game uses some kind of AI. For example, if you play PES or FIFA against the computer, you will be playing with a form of AI.

SOPHIA THE ROBOT—WHAT AWAITS US IN THE FUTURE?
We have all watched at least one Terminator movie in our lifetime. The movie is based on the idea that in a post-apocalyptic future the human resistance fights an army of machines controlled by the AI called Skynet, which becomes self-aware and sees humans as a threat. Now, however, the future in which machines rule
the world doesn't seem like such a fictional scenario anymore. As a matter of fact, if we look around us, we will see a world in which humans are constantly attached and connected to machines, whether it's their smartphones, tablets or computers. The new technology of virtual reality is yet again a new step into this direction.
 
The newest invention in the context of AI, however, is Hanson Robotics' humanoid robot called Sophia. According to Mallonee, Sophia was activated on February 14, 2016. Also, it can perform more than 50 facial expressions. It has two cameras built in as its eyes, with which it can process visual data and recognize faces, using AI. Sophia is much more sophisticated and human-like than any other previous cyborg. It appeared on many TV shows, interviews, music videos, and was also presented to the United Nations.
 According to Newsweek: "On October 25, at the Future Investment Summit in Riyadh, the robot was granted Saudi Arabian citizenship, becoming the first robot ever to have a nationality. This opens up many questions, such as – how far will we go in allowing cyborgs to be like us? It is more than obvious that we as humans must be very careful while creating AI. Because if we continue like this, it is only a matter of time when we will create an A.S.I., an AI which is smarter than us. In that case, we as humans would be the inferior „race" and we all know what that means. Let us therefore hope that Terminator will remain fiction.


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