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interpersonal relationships

Man is not made for life without social contact and communication. The chronicler and the Franciscan Salimbene of Parma recorded an experiment that is connected to the Staufer Frederick II. Looking for the original language of men, children are given to poor people who were not allowed to communicate with them nor show them any signs of love in order to find out the original spoken language of the people.

They used to close them in the dungeon, bringing them only food. They were forbidden to touch them or speak to them. This experiment has had devastating consequences. All of the children who were deprived of every communication died. It is believed that socializing with people and language learning is one of the existential conditions of life.
Unlike the mass communication, face to face communication or personal communication has the advantage of focusing all the attention to facial mimic and by doing so, directly interpreting signals. There is a constant feedback between the communication partners in the form of questions and alternating conversation. According to University Professor Samy Molcho, 80% communication belongs to the nonverbal communication.

With facial expressions and gestures, body posture works very effectively to others. During communication, an influence is essential. The term "influence" refers to positive or negative effects, for example, if we smile at the vendor, we want an equal reaction from her. Studies have shown that each type of communication begins with the resistance. It is believed that this type of resistance is inherent and that it protects people from unwanted feelings of pain or discomfort.
When people become aware of the impact of one person to another, their behavior becomes interconnected and synchronized. Paul Watzlawick observes that kind of associated behavior as a type of communication and summarizes it as a certain axiom: "you cannot communicate". According to this axiom, a very universal communication concept occurs. For example, the silence and the look in the distance can be interpreted as a message: "I don't want to talk". Negation of communication is already a kind of communication.

The methods and types of interpersonal relationships that affect interpersonal communication are behavior and attitude towards communication partner. Empathy is the ability and willingness to feel, to think, to recognize emotions, motives and personality traits of other people and understand them. Empathy is also the ability to respond to other people's feelings such as pity, sorrow, pain, helplessness, and compassion. Recent brain researches show a clear differentiation between empathy and compassion.

Social status and social function affect communication. The same messages can be understood in different ways when the speaker sees himself in different roles, for example in the role of the colleague, or the boss. Analysis and description of relationships among people often go beyond the communication processes. Many of the ambiguities can destroy interpersonal communication. This includes uncertainty about the purpose of communication: sometimes it is unclear what the speaker wants to achieve.

Understanding starts with the common cultural background and it is aimed at the compatibility of the experiences. At the level of interpersonal relations, misunderstandings can emerge through the different ways of presenting ourselves to the outside. People often try to affect how others perceive them. This occurs through the following types of behavior: leaving a good impression, presenting a person smaller than he believes he is, and covering. This kind of communication greatly complicates the assessment of the other person. 

Misunderstanding in communication can occur if the message of the interlocutor is too implicitly addressed, indirect or too diffuse. If the recipient of the message does not understand the ambiguity of the pronounced message or doesn't understand its irony, a misunderstanding in communication can also occur. There are different reasons why these kinds of misunderstandings happen, like fear of rejection, avoidance of shame, and humiliation. 

Misunderstandings in communication occur frequently. A prerequisite for avoiding misunderstandings during communication is the consciousness of particular behaviors. There are various measures that can reduce the misunderstandings in communication. These are, for example, mental preparation for future situations and relationships with others, avoiding ambiguity and giving feedback. 

A person should clarify to the communication partner what is understood from the expressed content, if the content is not clear, then a person should ask a speaker to explain the received message or paraphrase the expressed content. Disorders and conflicts occur during communication if the speaker and interlocutor perceive the expressed content in different ways. This leads to misunderstandings, and then to the conflict.
Social conflict arises when the situation becomes filled with negative feelings and suspense, in which two or more parties are in an interdependent position and are violently trying to accomplish incompatible action plans, and they are aware that there are opposing sides that do not agree with them. According to Uryu, the conflict occurs because people do not agree and therefore comes to the appearance of negative feelings.

Interpersonal conflicts occur between two or more persons (social conflict, the micro-social level); two or more groups (a structural conflict, meso-social level); organization (cultural conflict, the macro-social level). In the home or school environment, conflicts happen at the micro and meso-social level. Conflicts tend to be wider in the direction of the participant, and are gaining additional seriousness. In a conflict between two people or groups, opposed sides seek allies who are trying to support their position. If more people are involved in the conflict, it is more difficult to find a constructive solution.

There are hot and cold conflicts. Sides in hot conflicts are characterized by fierce mood changes. They are inspired by ideals and believe that their reason is much better than the one of the other sides. If the other party is trying to realize its ideals, conflict is inevitable. In hot conflicts, confrontation of the parties is common. Clarification of the mutual relations is relatively quickly. 

In cold conflicts, warring parties will meet with deep disappointment and frustrations. This form of conflict is less obvious but equally destructive in its effect, if not even more than a hot conflict. This type of conflict contributes to the reduction of self-esteem significantly more than in hot conflicts.

Which factors determine interpersonal attraction? Physical attraction stems from the fact that people prefer individuals who look good. There are certain stereotypes that are connected with attractiveness. Attractive people are attributed with positive traits such as confidence and warmth, they are social and popular. According to Snyder, Thin and Berscheid telephone conversations vary depending on whether the conversation is lead with an attractive person or with a less attractive person. 

Researchers have dealt with the question of what kind of individuals pay much attention to physical appearance and which traits they consider. Studies have shown that men pay more attention to the physical appearance of the partner than women. Psychologists explain this claim by saying that attractive physical appearance indicates the youth, health and the ability for further reproduction when it comes to women. Women find status more important than the beauty of the chosen partner. Physical characteristics which could be interpreted as an indicator of the status are height and athletic physical structure.


Researches show that people like individuals who are similar to them. According to Hays friends are similarly based on age, marital status, and intelligence. Friends often have a similar attitude and behavior in certain situations. If a person is positive in certain situations, it is very likely that positive feelings transfer to the surroundings. Similarity among people improves the interaction, while the interaction with people who are different from us is avoided. 

Physical attractiveness and similarity are in high correlation with the degree of attractiveness. Besides attractiveness and similarity, proximity is another important factor. Researches show that the more frequent we see or communicate with a particular person, it is more likely that we're going to make friends with her or get closer.

Which factors determine interpersonal attraction? Physical attraction stems from the fact that people prefer individuals who look good. There are certain stereotypes that are connected with attractiveness. Attractive people are attributed with positive traits such as confidence and warmth, they are social and popular. According to Snyder, Thin and Berscheid telephone conversations vary depending on whether the conversation is lead with an attractive person or with a less attractive person. 

Researchers have dealt with the question of what kind of individuals pay much attention to physical appearance and which traits they consider. Studies have shown that men pay more attention to the physical appearance of the partner than women. Psychologists explain this claim by saying that attractive physical appearance indicates the youth, health and the ability for further reproduction when it comes to women. Women find status more important than the beauty of the chosen partner. Physical characteristics which could be interpreted as an indicator of the status are height and athletic physical structure.


Researches show that people like individuals who are similar to them. According to Hays friends are similarly based on age, marital status, and intelligence. Friends often have a similar attitude and behavior in certain situations. If a person is positive in certain situations, it is very likely that positive feelings transfer to the surroundings. Similarity among people improves the interaction, while the interaction with people who are different from us is avoided. 

Physical attractiveness and similarity are in high correlation with the degree of attractiveness. Besides attractiveness and similarity, proximity is another important factor. Researches show that the more frequent we see or communicate with a particular person, it is more likely that we're going to make friends with her or get closer.

Robert Bolton dealt with the issue of interpersonal relations. He believed that people were eager for a close and intense relationships. People feel lonely because they don't know how to establish close relations although they may be surrounded by a large number of people. The ability that helps the creation of interpersonal relationships is communication. Communication makes the foundation of the interaction of two or more persons. The way of communication is learned from parents who probably were not skilled communicators. During communication, listening is the hardest part. 

Very often there is a need for expressing one's own opinion which serves more as an act of judgment of the interlocutor. Close people are the most common subject of criticizing because there is a constant need for changing people and customizing them according to one's own being. Bolton differs terms listening and hearing. Listening is considered to be an act of psychological connection with the other individual when the received information is processed and registered. 

Good communication is attainable if enough attention is given to the interlocutor. Paying enough attention to the person means that it is not desirable to look around the room, and wander with thoughts, but to focus on the eyes and mind of the interlocutor. It is very important to follow movement and mimic of the interlocutor because 80% of communication is nonverbal. There are many studies that have dealt with verbal communication and attempted to reveal body positions that disclose deception. Most people learned how to control their mimic and in this way they achieve deception. Studies have shown that foot is the most honest indicator of non-verbal communication because they are not prone to manipulation. 

By paraphrasing, we create the impression that we listen carefully to the interlocutor. If you often use the interlocutor's words, we let him know that we understand him. During the communication, we should direct our attention to the feeling we create, not to the words. Feeling directs us in the right direction. Very often, during an argument, the spoken words are not so severe, but the way they are spoken is what hurts the most. It is believed that verbal assertiveness is a good way of avoiding unnecessary conflict. By using verbal assertiveness, we reserve the possibility of expression of attitude, but in doing so, it is important not to use aggressiveness. This is considered to be the most effective communication skill. We leave our interlocutors the choice to respond in the same way, ie. with dignity without a hostile attitude.
Eric Berne's is a famous psychiatrist and he set the basis in the field of psychotherapy. He participated in a variety of scientific researches. One study had shocking results. Children who have been deprived of physical touch mentally and physically fell apart. Adults, as well as children, need physical contact. Since the physical contact is not constantly available, adults compensate it with other emotional symbols, eg. praises, love letter, etc. 

The research of Dr. Eric Bern showed that human beings need contact. The results showed that people prefer either positive or negative contact, better than his absence. He believes that people are highly motivated by their own personal use and that everyone plays their own game with a hidden motive. Life is described as playing poker, anyone invests for himself and plays for himself, but skillfully hides the cards. In the world of business, the personal benefit can be certain cash winning, while in close relationships that refers to the achievement of greater control or some type of satisfaction.

Dr. Eric Berne found that in every individual there are three states of ego which are conflicting to the model according to Freud. He describes the three states of ego in the following way: the first is the attitude and mindset of the parents; the other is the rational and logical mind of an adult; the third is the imagination of the child. He claims that, based on the situation in which we are, we take over the role of a parent, adult or child. It is easy to transfer from one state to another, for example, at one point, we use the child's curiosity, and in the other, we express our frustrations to a specific situation.

Berne argued that marital partners transfer frustrations one to another. Many people feel limited in marriage because their spouse doesn't provide them with what they imagined they should. Berne cites the example of a woman who wanted to learn to dance, but she blamed her husband because he did not like to go out and dance. When he enrolled in the course of the dance, she realized that she is afraid of public appearances and dropped out of the course. Berne assumes that people accuse their spouses of their own shortcomings and problems. People who constantly play games are becoming auto destructive. By playing games, the level of interest and curiosity often retains, but after the long period of time, a player can become psychotic.
Interpersonal relationship is directly linked to communication. Therefore, the same conditions which are valid for a successful communication, are also valid for the successful establishment of the relationship. Interpersonal communication is the subject of the work of therapists and psychologists.

According to Erickson, the establishment of relations during psychotherapy is the most important part of the treatment process. He believes that the encroachment into the past of the patient and the search for problems in the past is not the proper approach. Erickson engaged in the hypnosis which became the main tool of his work. He believed that in the treatment process, the establishment of relations contributes to the fact that through the cooperation with the patient, he is actually through his area of the unconscious. Body language, mimic and various other reactions can help in the understanding of the ways in which certain individuals can be accessed.

Erickson believed that in establishing a relationship, we often ignore our subconscious that can be helpful. Through our subconscious, we accept any information, such as feelings of presentiment that are most commonly correct, for example in the conclusion of the business contract in which all of the conditions are good, but we've got a bad feeling about it.


In order to successfully establish relations with others, it is necessary to show interest in the interlocutor. You should ask the questions addressed about their lives, for example, related to family, partner, life events, children, etc. Such communication shouldn't be aggressive or curious, but one should carefully listen to the interlocutor. For the establishment of a relationship, it is essential that both sides are open in the conversation and that both sides share personal things in order to create a feeling of confidence. If only one side opens up, the other side may withdraw during the conversation.



AI (ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE) is being developed faster than ever.
How far it got by  now !
........ WHAT IS AI  ?
According to Anjali UJ, the term AI: „was coined by John Mccarthy, an American computer scientist in 1956. Artificial Intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence but processed by machines, mainly computer systems. The processes mainly include learning, reasoning and self-correction. When the term „artificial intelligence" comes to our minds, we tend to immediately think about robots and cyborgs which are self-aware. That is the impression and the idea that is delivered to us through Hollywood films like Terminator or The Matrix.However, the truth is a little bit different, because the term AI applies to computer systems, and not neccessarily to robots. Although now a days there are instances of humanoid robots (droids),robots are predominantly not intelligent.
The field of AI is very broad, as it becomes more and more applicable in our everyday lives as time goes on. The idea of AI was born in the decades of 1940s and 1950s (when the first computers were developed as well), when a number of scientists investigated neuroscience and cybernetics. However, it was not until the mid-1980s when researchers conducted experiments with the goal of creating programs which would simulate the problem-solving technique which humans possess. Today, we are literally surrounded by numerous instances of AI, which we shall discuss in the following articles

.. ...... TYPES OF AI
 According to A. Notis: „Futurists, computer scientists, and other artificial intelligence experts break down A.I. into three broad categories: artificial narrow intelligence (A.N.I.), artificial general intelligence (A.G.I), and artificial super intelligence (A.S.I.)."These hesethree categories can be broken down as follows: 
A.N.I. – this type of AI refers to machines and computer systems which are as competent as humans at one specific task. Also, this type of AI is often even more competent as a human in a specific task. For example, the world champion in chess – Garry Kasparov, was checkmated in 1997 by IBM's program called Deep Blue. The reason for this is the ability of this program to always find and play the best move possible in chess, and that is why humans can not win at this game against a computer, as the best result which can be achieved is a draw.
A.G.I. – is supposed to be as competent as a human being in every aspect. (like an artificial copy of human mind) A.S.I. is the idea of an AI that is more intelligent and more competent than a human being. 
Although the development of AI shows significant advances in recent years, there are still no forms of AI which would match the second and third type (A.G.I. and A.S.I.).
 A.N I. is present all around us, while the other two types (at least for now) only exist as ideas. Scientists have created cyborgs which are aesthetically close to humans, and they can even behave and move like us, as well as engage in problem-solving (like Sophia – the robot), but cyborgs and computer systems are still not self-aware. They have no consciousness, as well as no emotions, which is a trait that only living beings (humans) possess.

There are numerous applications of AI which have become so present in our everyday lives that we don't even notice them anymore. All of them are instances of A.N.I. Best Life shares 20 instances of AI applications  which we have summed up into the following 7 everyday applications of AI:

1. Google Translate – This online translation tool is helpful for finding a simple translation of one or two words. However, when writing down a sentence in (say) Spanish, the English translation will probably be very senseless and funny. That is because this translator uses an algorithm which can translate the given sentence into the target language. However, more complex translations are often semantically and syntactically incorrect. Experts are working on solving this problem.

2. Google search bar – A form of AI is also used in the Google search bar where, as you are typing in letters, various solutions and search suggestions appear underneath the text which you typed in. These suggestions may or may not help and speed up your search, but the idea behind it is that it should help you. The search bar also remembers your previous searches (for the same reason).

3. Virtual assistants – These virtual assistants are for example Apple's Siri or Amazon's Alexa. They are a form of AI which you can interact with, as they offer you help with a wide spectre of problems and tasks. They respond to you with a human voice, although they are a computer system.

4. Social network recommendations – Another form of AI are social network recommendations. Here, we are referring to the recommendations for potential friends in the „people you may know" sections. Social media platforms like Facebook or Twitter use this kind of AI to, supposedly, help you connect with other users. This algorithm finds people with whom you have a number of friends in common, or even some interests or pages in common. Then, they appear in the „people you may know" section.

5. Youtube's „Watch this next" – Another well-known and everyday form of AI which we encounter is Youtube's „Watch this next" section. Youtube collects data about the content which you (as their consumer) are using, i.e. about which videos you watch. Then, they find similar videos and suggest them to you. This also happens with the „Recommended for you" section.

6. Driverless vehicles – Another form of AI which is more and more present are driverless vehicles: cars, airplanes, trains, etc. These vehicles use decision-making AI which navigates and drives them. These AI drivers are maybe not that present in our lives just yet, but they are definitely arriving.

7. Online and video games – Virtually each online and video game uses some kind of AI. For example, if you play PES or FIFA against the computer, you will be playing with a form of AI.

We have all watched at least one Terminator movie in our lifetime. The movie is based on the idea that in a post-apocalyptic future the human resistance fights an army of machines controlled by the AI called Skynet, which becomes self-aware and sees humans as a threat. Now, however, the future in which machines rule
the world doesn't seem like such a fictional scenario anymore. As a matter of fact, if we look around us, we will see a world in which humans are constantly attached and connected to machines, whether it's their smartphones, tablets or computers. The new technology of virtual reality is yet again a new step into this direction.
The newest invention in the context of AI, however, is Hanson Robotics' humanoid robot called Sophia. According to Mallonee, Sophia was activated on February 14, 2016. Also, it can perform more than 50 facial expressions. It has two cameras built in as its eyes, with which it can process visual data and recognize faces, using AI. Sophia is much more sophisticated and human-like than any other previous cyborg. It appeared on many TV shows, interviews, music videos, and was also presented to the United Nations.
 According to Newsweek: "On October 25, at the Future Investment Summit in Riyadh, the robot was granted Saudi Arabian citizenship, becoming the first robot ever to have a nationality. This opens up many questions, such as – how far will we go in allowing cyborgs to be like us? It is more than obvious that we as humans must be very careful while creating AI. Because if we continue like this, it is only a matter of time when we will create an A.S.I., an AI which is smarter than us. In that case, we as humans would be the inferior „race" and we all know what that means. Let us therefore hope that Terminator will remain fiction.


Catherine, The Diplomatic Reception

DECEMBER 12, 2019

Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge attended an evening reception for members of the Diplomatic Corps hosted by Queen Elizabeth at Buckingham Palace on Wednesday (December 11) in London.

We don't often see the Duchess wearing a tiara (the Cambridge Lover's Knot Tiara), in fact the last time we saw her wearing one, was back in June, during the state banquet the Queen threw for President Donald Trump during his state visit.

On that occasion she wore a very princessy tiered gown – bridal-esqe some might say – however, the silhouette was very different, and unexpected this time around.

As you know, black isn't my favourite colour, however, this Alexander McQueen gown was so simple, and elegant, I was swept away by the glamour of it all, as it provides the perfect back drop for her accessories to shine.

I would've been even more enamored had she worn the original version of this dress, but the sheer panel waist wouldn't have gone down so well with the Queen, or the majority of the British public methinks.

Amazing Cave discovered in Ethiopia

Newly discovered Cave in Melka Ballo area of Eastern Oromia is garnering a prominent public attention from local people. With its amazing rupture of geological and artistic beauty, it may serve as a new opportunity of great scientific  tools  to discover new historical narratives in human history and even may lead to the birth of new periodic tablet elements. 
The new discovery is calling for a world multidisciplinary scientists' help ,and attention. Safety check to the surrounding biodiversity including to human is vital. Karstologists are expected to come out with more details about this amazing cave.
This  newly discovered geological site is located in a locality called Melka Ballo in Eastern Oromia, Ethiopia.

Abiy Ahmed Ali – Nobel Lecture

Abiy Ahmed Ali – Nobel Lecture
#Speeches/keynotes (All)
We have an old saying:
“በሰላም እንድታድር ጎረቤትህ ሰላም ይደር”
“yoo ollaan nagayaan bule, nagaan bulanni.”

“Forging A Durable Peace in the Horn of Africa”

Your Majesties, Your Royal Highnesses,
Distinguished members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee,
Fellow Ethiopians, Fellow Africans, Citizens of the World
Ladies and Gentlemen,

I am honored to be here with

“Bara Holaa fi Lencaa”

Bara Holaa taatee;
-Turjumaana malee waligaltuus wal hogganuu hin beytu.
-Dallaya sitti jaaree, waraabeysa kan sirraa eeguu fira setee jala mar’atta. Boru morma kee gubbaa ablee akka sirra dhaabuummoo hin beytu.
-Kan har’a marga sii-nyaachisee ni jaalatta. Boru akka sii-nyaachuuf taheemmoo hin beytu.
-Dheedarratti wal saamuuf qabsooyta. Injifannoon dirree dheedaa irratti gonfatteen holoyyii kaan dura gabbattee akka dura qalamtummoo hin beytu.
-Hormaataaf foolattee, hobobsiita. Dhallii keetis carraa sin addaa akka hin qabaannee immoo hin beytu.
-Ati Holaa waan taateef holaa qofaan dorgoomta. Umamnii biroo baay’een sirratti akka dorgomaa jiru immoo hin beytu.
-Ati gaafa qalamtu qofa samii agarta. Warra lafa jiru dhisii cululleen samii jirtuulleen raqa kee irratti akka wal dorgomtuu immo hin beytuu.

Bara Lenca taatee;
-Ifirratti irkattee if jiraachifta, tumsaa fi tokkummaan waan tahe itti jiraatteeni jiru godhatta.
-Wal jala demta, hoggansa hojiin dhugoomsita.
-Firaa fi diina kee addaan beyta. Kan sidarbatees hin wallaaltuu.
-Karoora holloyyiin baaftuuf hirriba dhabdee hin bultu. Irra gabbataan holaa faxara kee bira akka hin dabarree beyta.
-Gaafa humna dhabdee akka titichii sitti taphatuu beyta. Kanaaf wal jaartee gamtaan jiraatta.

Holaa yokiin Lenca ta’uuf Filannoon Keeti!

Shaggooyyee Senaa Akeektuu


Baabuur borsaan dhufee,
Kahulaa saddeetii...
Saddeettanu banee,
Barbaaduma keetii..
Qilleensaan naffidee,
Shittoo morma keetii...way naa...

An ammallee
Faanuma teen dhawaa naannee
An ammallee
Sumaan haasawaa
Situu naadawaa mee akkam

An ammallee
Tan biraa takka hin feedhu..... looshee
An ammallee
Sirraa abdii hin murannee.... lokoo
An ammallee
Yaa nassabee intalaa,... laal mee
An ammallee
Simalee hin kaadhimannee
Kottuu naa yaa leymaanee mee akkam

As ammallee,
Fardii gaara kundhudhoo laal gaa
As ammallee
Cancalamee waan beekuu mee akkam
An ammallee
Dubree bareedduu laaftoo, laal gaa
An ammallee
Takka simalee hin arkuu , looshee naa laafii garaa naannee

As ammallee,
Iyyaasuu ilma Ali laal gaa
As ammallee
Guraawatti dhidhiimsanii mee akkam
An ammallee,
Si arkachuudha too murtiin, bontuu
An ammallee
Waan feedhan odeysaniis, sirraa nan hambiisanii naannee

As ammallee,
Qacuun gaaraa bilchaattee, looshee
As ammallee
Lenca gobellee nyaataa...naannee
An ammallee,
Yaada kee dudubbannaan, bontuu
Way ammallee..
Naan ja'anii maraataa...akkam siitahuu feetaa kommee

Yaa lammiitoo
Abubakar Mussaaffaa, hayyuu
Way gaafatti
Nyaaphaatuu galaafatee, way way
As ammallee,
Ifa har'aa nu ibsuuf, dhiiroo
Way yaa lammii 
Meeqa kan biyyeen nyaattee, sheenaan yoom nurraa baatee yaaboo

Yaa qomoo too
Gaafatti guyyaa murtii, foon koo
Way yaa lammii
Ra'uuf Baashaa nu duulee, zaylaan
Yaa Oromoo,
Oso walirraa hin dheeysiin, gamtaan
Rorroo diddaaf
Biyya teenyarratti lollee, hin dagannuu arrallee..yaaboo

Commonly Used SQL Commands


SQL, Structured Query Language, is a programming language designed to manage data stored in relational databases. SQL operates through simple, declarative statements. This keeps data accurate and secure, and it helps maintain the integrity of databases, regardless of size.
Here’s an appendix of commonly used commands.



ALTER TABLE table_name
ADD column_name datatype;
ALTER TABLE lets you add columns to a table in a database.


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_1 = value_1
  AND column_2 = value_2;
AND is an operator that combines two conditions. Both conditions must be true for the row to be included in the result set.


your makeup application correctly?

Do you ever wonder if you're actually going about your makeup application correctly?
A well made application 

When it comes to putting our faces on. Sometimes we get so stuck in our routine, we forget to stop and reflect on it. Do you ever wonder if you're actually going about your makeup application correctly? We certainly do, so we asked makeup guru to take us through the process.

Step 1: Start with a clean slate! Make sure your face is fresh and moisturized before putting any product on it. Then, apply primer with your fingers to ensure your makeup lasts all day.

Step 2: Using a duo fiber brush (the kind with white tips!), apply foundation all over the skin and blend it onto the neck.

Step 4: Apply highlighter along the top of your cheekbones, on the Cupid's bow, chin and in between the brows. Then, swipe a contour powder along the sides of your nose, along the forehead (near your hairline) and hollows of your cheekbones.

Step 5: Apply blush to the apples of your cheeks, extending up toward the temples.

Step 6: Apply a light gold, shimmery shadow (or any shadow of your choice) to the lids and just below the lash line. Using a fluffy, blending brush, dust a soft brown shade into the crease and blend outward. Fill in your brows using a brow pencil or powder. Swipe on some mascara and your eye makeup is set!

Step 7: Using a lip brush, swipe on a natural, rosy pink lipstick and you're good to go!

The Winner Of Miss Universe 2019

From Miss USA to Miss Universe, every year our television is graced by many beauty pageants. This year's Miss Universe competition was held on December 8, 2019 at Tyler Perry Studios in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States and saw 3 contestants from Mexico, Puerto Rico and South Africa land in the final. After Sofía Aragón, the Mexican beauty, was announced as the 2nd Runner-Up, everyone held their breaths to hear who was the winner of this year's Miss Universe title, Madison Anderson or Zozibini Tunzi. And behold, the host, Steve Harvey, announced (thankfully he didn't mess up this year!) that it's Miss South Africa who snatched the crown.
And while the crowning moment is, perhaps, most satisfying to watch, after congratulating her on the win, many people looked back and focused on what message Zozibini Tunzi channeled throughout the competition. Some, including model and businesswoman Naomi Campbell, praised Zozi for expressing her beliefs about beauty standards and how her presence and titles were changing what was once considered a norm.
On December 8, Miss Universe 2019 was crowned and it's South African contestant, Zozibini Tunzi!

Ancient city found in Ethiopia


A dig in Harlaa, Eastern Ethiopia, has revealed a 12th-century mosque. Credit: University of Exeter
Archaeologists have uncovered an ancient, forgotten city in Ethiopia once thought to be the home of giants.

The discovery reveals important new information about the origins of international trade and Islam in the country between the 10th and early 15th centuries.

This is the first evidence which proves Eastern Ethiopia was well connected with the Gulf, Egypt and India hundreds of years ago and highlights how skilled craftsmen traded with communities around the world and lived alongside people from different areas around the Indian Ocean and Red Sea.

A dig in Harlaa, Eastern Ethiopia, has revealed a 12th-century mosque, evidence of Islamic burials and headstones as well as glass vessel fragments, rock crystal, carnelian, and glass beads, imported cowry shells, and pottery from Madagascar, the Maldives, Yemen and China. Archaeologists have found bronze and silver coins from 13th-century Egypt.

There has so far been very little archaeological research carried out in Islamic sites in Ethiopia, with experts more focused on finding early humans in the region.

Archaeologists had not previously carried out extensive work in this part of Ethiopia. Farmers had been uncovering pottery and coins for many years in the area, and were convinced there was rich information about Ethiopia's history to be found underground. The size of some of the building stones also found created a local legend that the area had been home to giants.

Archaeologists worked with the community for two years to make the discoveries, which will be exhibited in a heritage centre run by local people designed to bring income to the area. Some findings will be displayed in the country's national museum in Addis Ababa. The work was completed in partnership with the Ethiopian Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage.

Professor Timothy Insoll, from the Institute of Arabic and Islamic Studies at the University of Exeter, who led the research, said: "This discovery revolutionises our understanding of trade in an archaeologically neglected part of Ethiopia. What we have found shows this area was the centre of trade in that region. The city was a rich, cosmopolitan centre for jewellery making and pieces were then taken to be sold around the region and beyond. Residents of Harlaa were a mixed community of foreigners and local people who traded with others in the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and possibly as far away as the Arabian Gulf."

Harlaa is 120km from the Red Sea coast and 300km from Addis Adaba. The architecture of the mosque is similar to those found in Southern Tanzania and Somaliland, showing connections between different Islamic communities in Africa.

Remains found in the dig suggest jewellers were making high-quality, delicate pieces in silver, bronze and semi-precious stones and glass beads. They used some technology usually associated in that period with jewellers in India, suggesting trade or immigration from that country to Harlaa.

The settlement, which is around 500m by 1,000m, has buildings and walls constructed with large stone blocks – leading people to assume only those with enormous stature or strength could have built it, and encouraging local legends about giants having inhabited the region. The remains of some of the 300 people buried in the cemetery are being analysed to see what their diet consisted of.

Professor Insoll said: "The archaeological findings suggest this place was home to a very mixed community. Local people were extremely keen for us to solve mysteries. Farmers had been finding strange objects, including Chinese coins, as they were working on their land, and a legend began that the area was home to giants. We have obviously disproved that, but I'm not sure they fully believe us yet. Some people have said

በኢትዮጵያ ሰብዓዊ መብቶች ኮሚሽን የተሰጠ መግለጫ

በዓለም ዓቀፍ ደረጃ ለ71ኛ ጊዜ የሚከበረውን የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ቀን በማስመልከት በኢትዮጵያ ሰብዓዊ መብቶች ኮሚሽን እና በሰብዓዊ መብቶች ላይ ከሚሰሩ የሲቪል ማህረሰብ ድርጅቶች የተሰጠ መግለጫ
ኅዳር 30 ቀን 2012 ዓ.ም
አዲስ አበባ
የተባበሩት መንግስታት ድርጅት ጠቅላላ ጉባኤ እኤአ ዲሴምበር 8 ቀን 1948  ሁሉ አቀፍ የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ድንጋጌ (Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) ማጽደቁ ይታወሳል፡፡ ሰብዓዊ መብቶችን በሚመለከት በዓለም ዓቀፍ ደረጃ እንደ መለኪያ የሚያገለግለው ይህ ሰነድ፣ የሰው ልጆችን የማይገሰስ ክብር እውቅና የሰጠ ሲሆን እነዚህም መብቶች ለዓለም ፍትህ፣ ነጻነት እና ሠላም መሰረቶች ሆነው በማገልገል ላይ ይገኛሉ፡፡  በሁሉ አቀፍ የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ድንጋጌ አንቀጽ 2 ላይ ማንም ሰው በዘር፣ በሃይማኖት፣ ጾታ፣ ቀለም፣ ቋንቋ፣ እምነት፣ ፖለቲካዊ አቋም፣ ማህበራዊ መነሻ፣ ዜግነት ወይም ሌላ ማናቸውም ምክንያት ያለምንም ልዩነት ሁሉንም መብቶች እና ነጻነቶች የተጎናጸፈ መሆኑንም እውቅና ይሰጣል፡፡

ዘንድሮ የሚከበረውን 71ኛውን የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ቀን ልዩ የሚያደርገው ከዚህ ቀደም በሰብዓዊ መብቶች ላይ የሚሰሩ የሲቪል ማህረሰብ ድርጅቶች ተጥሎባቸው የነበረው ማእቀብ ተነስቶ፣ መንግስትም ለሰብዓዊ መብቶች መከበር ቁርጠኝነቱን ባረጋገጠበት እና የኢትዮጵያ ሰብዓዊ መብቶች ኮሚሽን እና የሲቪል ማህበረሰብ ድርጅቶች በትብብር ለመስራት እርምጃ በጀመሩበት ማግስት መሆኑ ነው፡፡ በዚህም መሰረት ከህዳር 25 - 30 ቀን 2012 ዓ.ም የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ሳምንት በተለያዩ ዝግጅቶች ሲከበር ሰንብቷል፡፡ ዛሬ ህዳር 30 ቀን 2012 ዓ.ም የሚደረገው የመዝጊያ ፕሮግራምን በማስመልከት የኢትዮጵያ ሰብዓዊ መብቶች ኮሚሽን እና በሰብዓዊ መብቶች ላይ የምንሰራ የሲቪል ማህበረሰብ ድርጅቶች የሚከተለውን መልዕክት ማስተላለፍ እንወዳለን፡፡

ስለሆነም ስማችን ከዚህ በታች የተጠቀሰው 6 የሰብዓዊ መብት ድርጅቶች እና ኮሚሽኑ፣

1. ኢትዮጵያ ተቀብላ የህገ-መንግስቷ አካል ያደረገቻቸውን ዓለም ዓቀፍ የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ድንጋጌዎች እና ስምምነቶች ከመላው ዓለም የሰው ልጆች ሁሉ ሰብዓዊ መብቶች እና ነጻነቶች የዓለማቀፍ የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ድንጋጌ ጋር በሚጣጣም መልኩ እንዲከበሩ፣ እንዲስፋፉ እና እንዲሟሉ የምናደርገውን ጥረት አጠናክረን እንደምንቀጥል እናሳውቃን፡፡ 
2. በሀገራችን የመጣውን የለውጥ እቅስቃሴ ተከትሎ የሲቪል ማህበረሰብ ድርጅቶች በሀገራቸው ጉዳይ ላይ የበኩላቸውን አስተዋጽኦ ማበርከት እንዲችሉ የሚያግዘው የሲቪል ማህበረሰብ ድርጅቶች አዋጅ መሻሻሉ፣ የፖለቲካ ፓርቲዎች በህጋዊ መንገድ የሚንቀሳቀሱበት የህግ ማዕቀፍ መዘጋጀቱ እና የምርጫ ቦርዱ በአዲስ መልክ መዋቀሩ እና በአንጻራዊ መልኩ የፕሬስ ነጸነት መከበሩ አወንታዊ እርምጃዎች ናቸው፡፡ እነዚህ ለውጦችም ዲሞክራሲያዊ ማህበረሰብን ለመፍጠር መሰረት እነደሚጥሉ እምነታችን ነው፡፡ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ማህበረሰብ ለመገንባት መንግስት የጀመራቸው ተግባራት ለሰብዓዊ መብቶች መሻሻል አስተዋጽኦ እንደሚኖረው እናምናለን፡፡
3. ከቅርብ ጊዜ ወዲህ በተከሰቱ ግጭቶች ሳቢያ የደረሰው የህይወት መጥፋት፣ የሀገር ውስጥ መፈናቀል፣ የንብረት ውድመት፣ የአካል ጉዳቶች፣ በሴቶች እና ሕጻናት ላይ የሚደርሱ ጾታን መሰረት ያደረጉ ጥቃቶች እና መሰል የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ጥሰቶች እየተባባሱ መምጣታቸው የመንግስት የህግ ማስከበር እና የፍትህ ጥያቄዎችን የመመለስ አቅም እየተፈታተኑ ዜጎችን ለከፋ የሰብዓዊ መብት ቀውስ እያጋለጡ በመሆኑ የሚመለከታቸው የህግ አስከባሪ አካላት ባስቸኳይ በመብቶች ጥሰት ላይ የተሳተፉ ግለሰቦች እና ተቋማትን ተጠያቂ እንዲያደርጉ እናሳስባለን፡፡ 
በዚህም መሰረት፡- 

I. የፌዴራል መንግስት

1. ሰብዓዊ መብቶችን በማክበር፣ ማስከበር እና ማሟላት ረገድ ያሉበትን ዓለም ዓቀፍ ግዴታዎች እንድወጣ፣ ለዚህም የህግ የበላይነትን በማስፈን ለዜጎቹ ተገቢውን ጥበቃ እንድያደርግ፣ 
2. ከዓለም ዓቀፍ የሰብዓዊ መብቶች እና ነጻነቶች ስምምነቶች አንጻር መንግስት ተጨባጭ እርምጃዎችን እንድወስድ፣ ሰብዓዊ መብቶች ተግባራዊ መሆን እንዲችሉ የህግ ማስከበር ሃላፊነቱን እንዲወጣ እና የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ጥሰት ሰለባዎች የሚካሱበትን እና የመብት ጥሰቶች ላይ የተሳተፉ በህግ አግባብ ተጠያቂ የሚሆኑበትን ስርዓት እንዲያጠናክር፣ ለዚህም ተገቢውን ትኩረት በመስጠት እንዲሰራ፣
II. የክልል እና የከተማ አስተዳደሮች

1. ለሁሉ ዓቀፍ የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ድንጋጌ እና ኢትዮጵያ ለፈረመቻቸው የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ስምምነቶች ተገዥ በመሆን በሚያስተዳድሯቸው ክልሎች እና የከተማ አስተዳደሮች የሰብዓዊ መብቶች እንዲከበሩ፣ በሰብዓዊ መብቶች ጥሰቶች ተሳታፊዎችን በማጣራት በህግ ተጠያቂ እንዲያደርጉ፣ ዜጎች በማንኛውም አካባቢ ተዘዋውረው የመኖር እና የመስራት መብታቸውን እንዲያስከብሩ፣ 
2. የፖለቲካ ፓርቲዎች የፖለቲካ ፕሮግራሞቻቸውን ማስተዋወቅ እንዲችሉ ተገቢውን ጥበቃ በማድረግ ዜጎች ፖለቲካዊ እና የመደራጀት መብታቸውን እንዲጠቀሙ አስቻይ ሁኔታዎችን እንዲፈጥሩ፣

III. የፖለቲካ ፓርቲዎች
1. የፖለቲካ ፓርቲዎች ለሰብዓዊ መብቶች እና ነጻነቶች መከበር እና የዲሞክራሲ ባህል መገንባት ከፍተኛ አስተዋጽኦ ያላቸው በመሆኑ፣ ሰብዓዊ መብቶችን በሚመለከቱ ያሉባቸውን ግዴታዎች እንድያከብሩ፣ የሰብዓዊ መብቶች እና ነጻነቶች በማስፋፋት በማክበር እና በማስከበር በትጋት እንዲሰሩ፣ 
2. የፖለቲካ ፕሮግራሞቻቸውን በሚያስተዋውቁበት እና ቅስቀሳ በሚያደርጉበት ወቅት ከማናቸውም ግጭት ቀስቃሽ ተግባራት እና ንግግሮች እንዲቆጠቡ፣ በፖለቲካዊ ጉዳዮች ላይ የሰለጠነ ውይይት እና ክርክር በማድረግ በፍሬ ነገር ጉዳዮች ላይ አማራጭ በማቅረብ ለዜጎች ፕግራሞቻቸውን ሰላማዊ በሆነ መልኩ እንድያስተዋውቁ፣

IV. ወጣቶች
1. የዚህ ዓመት የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ቀን ወጣትነት ለሰብዓዊ መብቶች በሚል መሪ ቃል እየተከበረ ይገኛል፡፡ የማህበረሰብ እንቅስቃሴዎች ለፍትህ፣ ነጻነት እና ለሰብዓዊ መብቶች መከበር ዋና ተዋናዮችም ወጣቶች እንደመሆናቸው፣ ለሰብዓዊ መብቶች እና ነጻነቶች መከበር ዋና ተዋናይ መሆን እንድችሉ፣  
2. በሠላማዊ እና በሰለጠነ መንገድ በተለያዩ ማህራበዊ ጉዳዮች ላይ የመወያየት እና የመከራከር ልምድን በማዳበር ለሰብዓዊ መብቶች እና ነጻነቶች መከበር፣ መስፋፋት እና መፈጸም ግንባር ቀደም ተዋናይ በመሆን የውይይት ባህል እንዲያዳብሩ እንጠይቃለን፡፡

ሠብዓዊ መብቶች ለሁሉም!

1. የኢትዮጵያ ሰብዓዊ መብቶች ኮሚሽን
2. ስብስብ ለሰብዓዊ መብቶች በኢትዮጵያ 
3. የኢትዮጵያ የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ድርጅቶች ህብረት 
4. የኢትዮጵያ የሰብዓዊ መብቶች ጉባኤ 
5. ኢትዮጵያዊ ተነሳሽነት ለሰብዓዊ መብቶች  
6. የህግ ባለሙያዎች ለሰብዓዊ መብቶች - ኢትዮጵያ
7. የኢትዮጵያ የህግ ባለሙያ ሴቶች ማህበር


ዘር የማይቆጥረው መንጌ ኢትዮጵያ ትቅደም

አዲሱ ትውልድ: የቀድሞ መሪ የጓድ ኮሎኔል መንግስቱ ሀይለማርያም አፍቃሪዎች ደጋፊና ወዳጆች ቤት 

አያቶቹ አርበኞች አባቱ አርበኛ አጐቶቹ በአድዋ ጦር የወደቁ አርበኞች የኩሩ ነፍጠኛ ልጅ እርሱም ጀግና አገር ወገን ወዳድ የደሀ የጭቁን አባት የሆነው መንጌ በራሱ አንደበት:

"የተወለድኩት ግንቦት 19 1933 ነው:: ልጅ ሆኜ ሲነገረኝ ከነበረው

እንደማስታውሰው <<መንግሥቱ>>
የሚለው ስም የወጣልኝ ከፋሽስት ወረራ በኋላ ነጻነታችን በተመለሰበት ዓመት በመወለዴ ነው:: የተወለድኩት አዲስ አበባ ውስጥ ጊዮርጊስ አጠገብ አሁን ሦስተኛ
ፖሊስ ጣቢያ በሚገኝበት አካባቢ ነው:: አንዲት አነስተኛ የጠላት ሥሪት የነበረች ቤት እዚያ ውስጥ ነው የተወለድኩት::

 የአባቴ አባት አቶ ወልዴ አያና የሸዋ ኦሮሞ ሲሆኑ በግብርና የሚተዳደሩ ነበሩ::  የተወለዱትና የኖሩት ፋሪ አካባቢ ልዩ ስሙ ረጲ በተባለ ቦታ ነበር::

 በጊዜው እንደነበረው የገበሬ ሰራዊት ውስጥ ነፍጠኛ ነበሩ::
 የአሁኖቹ ጠባብ ብሄርተኞች ሊያጥላሉት እንደሚሞክሩት የቃሉን ትርጉም ለማዛባት ከሚመጣ እንጂ ነፍጠኛ ማለት ባለጠመንጃ ማለት ነው::

ነፍጥ ወይም ጠመንጃ ከሚለው የመጣ ነው:: ሌላ ምንም ትርጉም የለውም::
 ነፍጥ መሣሪያው ነው መሣሪያውን ያነገበው ነፍጠኛ ይባላል::

 አባቴም ኃይለማሪያም ወልዴም አርበኛ ነበሩ
ከጠላት ጦር ጋር ከገበሬው ጋር በአርበኝነት
ብዙ ተዋግቶዋል::

በ እናቴ በኩል ስንሄድ አያቷ እናቷና አባቷ
ዘመዶችዋ ሁሉ ተጉለቴዎች ናቸው::

 ይህ የሰሜን ሸዋ ክፍል መሬቱ የተበላ በመሆኑና ከብቱም ቤትደጋጋሚ ችግር እያለቀበት ነዋሪው <<አገር ለማቅናት>> እየተባለ
ወዲያ ወዲህ በማለት ይኖራል:: አገር በምትወረር ግዜም የገበሬ ወታደር እየሆነ ይዘምታል::

 የናቴ አያቷ ወልደአማኑኤል
ጎርፍነህ ይባላሉ:: ሁለት ታላላቅ ወንድሞቻቸው አድዋ ዘምተው በጦር ሜዳ ወድቀዋል:: ወልደ አማኑኤል ጎርፍነህ እራሳቸው ም ዕራብ ሸዋ ውስጥ በባሻ
ማዕረግ የገበሬ ሠራዊት አለቃ ነበሩ 

ከቅርብ ወዳጃቸው የተፃፈ ...

EPP Documents - የውህደቱ ዓላማና አስፈላጊነት

የውህደቱ ዓላማና አስፈላጊነት
ስለ አዲሱ ውህድ ፓርቲ በተሻለ ለመገንዝብ ይረዳ ዘንድአላማውና አስፈላጊነቱ እንደሚከተለው በስፋት ተተንትኖ ቀርቧል፡፡
የሳምንት መወያያ ርዕስ ላይም ስለ ውህደቱ ላነሳችው ስጋትና ጥያቄዎች በተወሰነ መልስ ይሆናችሁል፡፡
በተከታታይነትም ግልጽነት የመፍጠር ስራ ይቀጥላል፡፡
1. ግንባሩ ተልዕኮውን በማጠናቀቁ፣
ኢህአዴግ በሚመሠረትበት ወቅት የብሔር ጭቆናንለማስቀረትና የብሔር ጥያቄ ለመመለስ የተፈጠረስትራቴጂካዊ ግንባር ነው፡፡ የኢፌዲሪ ህገ-መንግስት ፀድቆውዲሞክራሲያዊና ፌደራላዊ ሥርዓት እውን ከሆነ በኋላ የብሔርብሔረሰቦች እራስ በራስ የማስተዳደር መብት፣ ቋንቋ፣ ባህልእና በማንነት የሚኮሩበት ህገ-መንግስታዊ መብቱ ተረጋግጧል፡፡ስለዚህ ግንባሩ የተፈጠረበት ዋንኛውን ዓላማ አሳክተዋልማለት ይቻላል፡፡ ብሄር ብሄረሰቦች በዚህ ህገ-መንግስት መነሻእራሳቸውን በራሳቸው ማስተዳደር መብት በመጎናፀፋቸውበሁሉም የአስተዳደር እርከኖች ይኸው ተግባራዊ ሆኗል፡፡የስርዓቱ ዋና መለያ የብሔሮች፣ ብሔረሰቦችና ሕዝቦች የራስንእድል በራስ የመወሰን ያልተገደበ መብታቸውን መሰረት ያደረገፌዴራላዊ የመንግስት አወቃቀር፣ አደረጃጀትና አሰራርማቋቋሙ ነው፡፡
በአብዛኛው የዓለም ተሞክሮ እንደሚያሳየው መሰልአደረጃጀቶች ማለትም (የግንባር፣ ንቅናቄ፣ ነፃ አውጭ ወዘተባለው ሥርዓት ላይ በማመፅ በትጥቅ ትግል ወይም በሌላአግባብ የሚታገሉ ናቸው፡፡ ከዚህ አኳያ ኢህአዴግም የደርግስርዓት በትጥቅ በማስወገድ ህገ-መንግስታዊ ሥርዓትመመስረት ነበር፡፡ አደረጃጀቱ በዚያን ወቅት ተገቢ ቢሆንምላለፉት 27 ዓመታትም በዚሁ መቀጠሉ በተለያዩ ጉዳዮችአሉታዊ ተፅዕኖ ነበረው፡፡ ስለዚህ የግንባር አደረጃጀቱተልዕኮውን አሳክቶ የጨረሰ ብቻ ሳይሆን ከወቅቱ ነባራዊሁኔታ ጋር የማይራመድ በመሆኑ ወደ አንድ ወጥ ፖርቲመምጣት አስፈላጊ ብቻ ሳይሆን የህልውና ጉዳይ ጭምር ነው፡፡

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